Studi Literatur Aktivitas Antihiperglikemik dari Beberapa Tanaman Suku Rubiaceae Secara In Vivo

Fauzia Azmi, Ratu Choesrina, Sri Peni Fitrianingsih

Abstract


ABSTRACT:  Hyperglycemia is a medical condition in the form of an increase in blood glucose levels that exceeds normal which is a characteristic of several diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. Basic health research data shows that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in 2013 was 1.5% to 2% in 2018. The increasing number of people with diabetes mellitus encourages researchers to use plants that have the potential to lower blood glucose levels, such as some plants from the tribe. Rubiaceae. Groups of secondary metabolites suspected of having antihyperglycemic activity are alkaloids, phenols (chlorogenic acid and catechins), flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The purpose of this literature study was to determine the antihyperglycemic activity of several plants belonging to the Rubiaceae tribe, as well as to determine the class of secondary metabolites that play a role in antihyperglycemic activity based on the results of phytochemical screening. The results obtained from this literature study show that several plants from the Rubiaceae tribe, namely coffee plants (Coffea arabica L), gambier (Uncaria gambir robx.), soka (Ixora coccinea L.), Psydrax horizontalis, and Morinda lucida, are scientifically known. has antihyperglycemic activity against experimental animals, with a decrease in blood glucose levels of green coffee bean extract as much as 502.83 mg/dl and 49.5 mg/dl, gambir leaf extract as much as 180.4 mg/dl, soka leaf extract as much as 93.7 mg/dl, Psydrax horizontalis leaf extract as much as 279.25 mg/dl and extract of the bark of Morinda lucida as much as 200.06 mg/dl. Based on the results of phytochemical screening, the plants studied contained a class of secondary metabolites of alkaloids, phenols (chlorogenic acid and catechins), flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins which have antihyperglycemic activity.

Keywords: antihyperglycemic, alloxan, streptozotocin, Rubiaceae.

ABSTRAK: Hiperglikemia adalah suatu kondisi medis berupa kenaikan kadar glukosa darah melebihi normal yang menjadi karakteristik beberapa penyakit terutama diabetes melitus. Data riset kesehatan dasar menunjukkan prevalensi penyakit diabetes melitus pada tahun 2013 sebanyak 1,5% menjadi 2% pada tahun 2018. Penderita diabetes melitus yang terus bertambah mendorong para peneliti untuk memanfaatkan tanaman-tanaman yang berpotensi menurunkan kadar glukosa darah, seperti beberapa tanaman dari suku Rubiaceae.  Golongan senyawa metabolit sekunder yang diduga memiliki aktivitas antihiperglikemik yaitu alkaloid, fenol (Asam klorogenat dan katekin), flavonoid, steroid, terpenoid, tannin dan saponin. Tujuan dari penelitian studi literatur ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas antihiperglikemik dari beberapa tanaman suku Rubiaceae, serta untuk mengetahui golongan senyawa metabolit sekunder yang berperan dalam aktivitas antihiperglikemik berdasarkan hasil dari skrining fitokimia. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian studi literatur ini menunjukkan bahwa beberapa tanaman dari suku Rubiaceae yaitu tanaman kopi (Coffea arabica L), gambir (Uncaria gambir robx.), soka (Ixora coccinea L.), Psydrax horizontalis, dan Morinda lucida, secara ilmiah diketahui memiliki aktivitas antihiperglikemik terhadap hewan percobaan, dengan penurunan kadar glukosa darah ekstrak biji kopi hijau sebanyak 502.83 mg/dl dan 49.5 mg/dl, ekstrak daun gambir sebanyak 180.4 mg/dl, ekstrak daun soka sebanyak 93.7 mg/dl, ekstrak daun Psydrax horizontalis sebanyak 279.25 mg/dl dan ekstrak kulit batang Morinda lucida sebanyak 200.06 mg/dl. Berdasarkan hasil skrining fitokimia tanaman yang di kaji mengandung golongan senyawa metabolit sekunder alkaloid, fenol (Asam klorogenat dan katekin), flavonoid, steroid, terpenoid, tannin dan saponin yang memiliki aktivitas sebagai antihiperglikemik.

Kata Kunci: antihiperglikemik, aloksan, streptozotosin, suku Rubiaceae


Keywords


antihiperglikemik, aloksan, streptozotosin, suku Rubiaceae

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/.v0i0.30567

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