Kajian Pustaka Pemutih Kulit dari Bahan Alam serta Formulasinya dalam Sediaan Nanoemulsi

Riri Oktafianti, Budi Prabowo Soewondo, Ratih Aryani

Abstract


ABSTRACT: Preparations containing whitening agents work by targeting the tyrosinase enzyme and interfering with melanin synthesis. Melanin is the end product of melanogenesis that gives the skin its brown or black color. Nanoemulsion is a carrier system, measuring 10-200 nm which is capable of bringing bleaching agents to penetrate into the stratum corneum to produce tyrosinase inhibitory activity on target cells, namely melanocytes. This Systematic Literature Review (SLR) aims to determine the skin whitening activity of several natural ingredients and to determine the nanoemulsion formulation as a carrier system for skin whitening agents. This Systematic Literature Review is a systematic way to obtain information by collecting, critically evaluating, integrating and presenting findings from several research studies. Based on the IC50 value, the compounds that have activity to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme are alpha mangostin (IC50 9.94 mg/mL), artocarpine (IC50 30.2 mg/mL), epigallocatechin gallate (IC50 66.28 ppm), oxyresveratrol (IC50 107.91 ppm), resveratrol (IC50 170.93 ppm) and flavonoids (IC50 199.98 ppm). The nanoemulsion formulation of natural ingredients extracts produced good nanoemulsion characteristics, where the nanoemulsion formula of mulberry root extract consisting of 2% VCO oil phase, 18% mixture of tween 80 and PEG 400 (1:1), and 80% water was able to produce a size the smallest droplet is 81.61 nm and the PDI value is 0.22.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Extract, Tyrosinase Inhibitor, Skin Whitening.

ABSTRAK: Sediaan yang mengandung agen pemutih bekerja dengan menargetkan enzim tirosinase dan mengganggu sintesis melanin. Melanin merupakan produk akhir melanogenesis yang memberikan warna coklat atau hitam pada kulit. Nanoemulsi merupakan suatu sistem pembawa, berukuran 10-200 nm yang mampu membawa zat pemutih menembus ke dalam lapisan stratum korneum untuk menghasilkan aktivitas hambat tirosinase pada sel target, yaitu sel melanosit. Systematic Literature Review (SLR) ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas pemutihan kulit dari beberapa bahan alam dan mengetahui formulasi nanoemulsi sebagai sistem pembawa agen pemutih kulit. Sistematic Literature Review ini merupakan cara sistematik untuk memperoleh informasi dengan mengumpulkan, mengevaluasi secara kritis, mengitegrasikan dan menyajikan temuan dari beberapa studi penelitian. Berdasarkan nilai IC50, senyawa yang memiliki aktivitas menghambat enzim tirosinase adalah alfa mangostin (IC50 9,94 mg/mL), artocarpin (IC50 30,2 mg/mL), epigallocatechin gallate (IC50 66,28 ppm), oksiresveratrol (IC50 107,91 ppm), resveratrol (IC50 170,93 ppm) dan flavonoid (IC50 199,98 ppm). Formulasi nanoemulsi ekstrak bahan alam rata-rata menghasilkan karakteristik nanoemulsi yang baik, dimana formula nanoemulsi ekstrak akar murbei yang terdiri dari fase minyak 2% VCO, 18% campuran Tween 80 dan PEG 400 (1:1), serta 80% air mampu menghasilkan ukuran droplet paling kecil yaitu 81,61 nm dan nilai PDI 0,22.

Kata Kunci: Nanoemulsi, Ekstrak, Inhibtor Tirosinase, Pemutih Kulit.


Keywords


Nanoemulsi, Ekstrak, Inhibtor Tirosinase, Pemutih Kulit.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Armin, F. dkk. (2013). Identifikasi dan Penetapan Kadar Merkuri (Hg) dalam Krim Pemutih Kosmetika Herbal Menggunakan Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom (SSA), Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Farmasi.

Arung, Enos Tangke, Wicaksono, B. D., Handoko, Y. A., Kusuma, I. W., Yulia, D., & Sandra, F. (2009). ‘Anti-cancer properties of diethylether extract of wood from Sukun (Artocarpus altilis) in human breast cancer (T47D) cells’, Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 8(4), 317–324.

Bashirah, D. dkk. (2020). ‘Kosmetik Herbal yang Berpotensi Sebagai Pemutih Kulit Alami’, Farmaka, Vol. 18, No. 1.

Buranajaree, S., Donsing, P., Jeenapongsa, R., & Viyoch, J. (2011). ‘Depigmenting action of a nanoemulsion containing heartwood extract of Artocarpus incisus on UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in C57BL/6 mice’, Journal of Cosmetic Science, 62(1), 1–14.

Chaiittianan, R., & Sripanidkulchai, B. (2014). ‘Development of a nanoemulsion of Phyllanthus emblica L. branch extract’, Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 40(12), 1597–1606.

Cichorek, M., Wachulska, M., Stasiewicz, A., & Tymińska, A. (2013). ‘Skin melanocytes: Biology and development’, Postepy Dermatologii Alergologii, 30(1), 30–41.

Haryono, A., Restu, W. K., & Harmami, S. B. (2012), ‘Preparasi dan Karakterisasi Nanopartikel Alumunium Fosfat’, Indonesia J. of Mat. Sci.: vol. 14, No. 1.

Jennifer,C. dan Stephie CM. (2012). ‘A Review on Skin Whitening Property of Plant Extracts Bangalore’, International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Vol. 3, No.4 :332 – 47.

Jufri, M., Mun, A., Fadhila, M., & Mun Im, A. (2019). ‘Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Skin Penetration of Morus Alba Root Extract Nanoemulsion’, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research.

Kim, E., Hwang, K., Lee, J., Han, S., Kim, E.-M., Park, J., & Cho, J. (2018). ‘Skin Protective Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate’, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(1), 173.

Li, Y., Huang, J., Lu, J., Ding, Y., Jiang, L., Hu, S., Chen, J., & Zeng, Q. (2019). ‘The role and mechanism of Asian medicinal plants in treating skin pigmentary disorders’, In Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Vol. 245)1-13.

Marzuki, N. H. C., Wahab, R. A., & Hamid, M. A. (2019). ‘An overview of nanoemulsion: Concepts of development and cosmeceutical applications’, In Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment (Vol. 33, Issue 1, pp. 779–797).

Mulia, K., Putri, G. A., & Krisanti, E. (2018). ‘Encapsulation of mangosteen extract in virgin coconut oil based nanoemulsions: Preparation and characterization for topical formulation’, Materials Science Forum, 929 MSF, 234–242.

Prasetyo, B. F. (2021). ‘Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Daya Hambat Enzim Tirosinase Ekstrak Etanol Azolla filiculoides Lam’, Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis, 8(1), 53.

Priani, S. E., Halim, A. F., Fitrianingsih, S. P., & Syafnir, L. (2021). ‘Uji Aktivitas Inhibitor Tirosinase Ekstrak Kulit Buah Cokelat (Theobroma cacao L.) dan Formulasinya dalam Bentuk Sediaan Nanoemulsi’, Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis, 8(1), 1.

Rebolleda, S., Sanz, M. T., Benito, J. M., Beltrán, S., Escudero, I., & González San-José, M. L. (2015). ‘Formulation and characterisation of wheat bran oil-in-water nanoemulsions’, Food Chemistry, 167, 16–23.

Romes, N. B., Abdul Wahab, R., & Abdul Hamid, M. (2021). ‘The role of bioactive phytoconstituents-loaded nanoemulsions for skin improvement: a review’, In Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment (Vol. 35, Issue 1, pp. 711–729).

Soyata, A., & Chaerunisaa, A. Y. (2021). ‘Whitening Agent : Mekanisme, Sumber dari Alam dan Teknologi Formulasinya’, Majalah Farmasetika, 6(2), 169.

Zuidhoff, HW., and Van Rijsberge JM. (2001). ‘Whitening efficacy of frequently used whitenning ingredients’, C&T. Vol 116(1): 53-9.

R Fathan Said, Darma Gita Cahya Eka, Kodir Reza Abdul. (2021). Formulasi sediaan Cuka Buah Kopi Menggunakan Ragi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) dan Bakteri (Acetobacter aceti). jurnal Riset Farmasi, 1(1), 38-45.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/.v0i0.29918

Flag Counter