Uji Antibakteri Fraksi Etil Asetat Daun Sirsak (Annona Muricata Linn) Terhadap Bakteri Salmonella Typhi

Muhammad Nur Ilhamudin, Usep Abdullah Husin, R.Anita Indriyanti, Lelly Yuniarti

Abstract


Abstract: Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella typhi. Typhoid fever In Indonesia, typhoid problem were caused by factor environmental hygiene, antibiotic resistance, and ineffective vaccination factors. Drug of choice for this disease is Chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol is known to have some side effects. Leaves soursop (Annona muricata Linn) has been used by most of Indonesian people to treat many diseases. The active substance contained in soursop leaves are Annoneceus acetogenin, Flavonoids, Tanin, Alkaloid and Saponin are known to have antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of fraction ethyl acetate of soursop leaves against Salmonella typhi and assess the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum murder concentration (MMC) of fraction ethyl acetate of leaves soursop.The study was conducted with pure laboratory experimental methods such as in vitro. The sampels are pure cultures Salmonella typhi were obtained from laboratory of STIKES UNJANI. The material test of Fraction ethyl acetate of leaves of soursop (Annona muricata Linn) with a concentration of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, chloramphenicol 30µg as positive control, and Tween 80 as negative control. Antibacterial effect against Salmonella typhi tested using the modified Kirby-Bauer method on Mueller Hilton agar media performed as much as four times repetition.The result of antibacterial test showed inhibition zone formation at a concentration of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and Chloramphenicol as positive control.The conclusion was Fraction ethyl acetate of leaves of soursop has antibacterial effect svery low against Salmonella typhi. But in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bakteriasidal concentration (MBC) of fraction ethyl acetate soursop leaves showed negative results.

Abstrak: Demam tifoid merupakan suatu penyakit infeksi sistemik yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi. Masalah Tifoid di Indonesia disebabkan oleh  faktor kebersihan lingkungan, resistensi antibiotik, dan belum adanya vaksin yang efektif. Obat yang menjadi pilihan utama pada penyakit ini adalah kloramfenikol. Obat ini diketahui memiliki beberapa efek samping. Tanaman sirsak telah digunakan secara turun temurun oleh masyarakat Indonesia untuk mengobati penyakit . Zat aktif yang terkandung dalam daun sirsak yaitu Annoneceus acetogenin, Flavonoid, Tanin, Alkaloid, dan Saponin yang memiliki efek antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai efektivitas antibakteri Fraksi Etil Asetat daun sirsak terhadap Salmonella typhi, dan menilai Konsentrasi hambat minimum (KHM) dan Konsentrasi bunuh minimum (KBM) dari Fraksi etil asetat daun sirsak. Penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan metode eksperimental laboratorik murni secara in vitro. Sampel berasal dari biakan murni Salmonella typhi yang diperoleh dari Laboratorium STIKES UNJANI. Bahan uji berupa Fraksi etil asetat daun sirsak dengan konsentrasi 20%,40%,60%,80%, kloramfenikol 30 µg sebagai kontrol positif dan Tween 80 sebagai kontrol negatif. Uji antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi modifikasi Kirby bauer dengan medium agar Mueler Hilton yang dilakukan sebanyak empat kali pengulangan.  Hasil uji antibakteri menunjukan terbentuknya zona hambat pada konsentrasi 20%,40%,60%,80% dan kloramfenikol sebagai kontrol positif. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah Fraksi etil asetat daun sirsak memiliki aktivitas antibakteri sangat rendah terhadap Salmonella typhi. . Namun pada konsentrasi hambat mnimal dan konsentrasi bunuh minimal fraksi etil asetat daun sirsak menunjukan hasil yang negatif.


Keywords


Test of Antibacterial Ethyl Acetate Fraction Leaf Soursop (Annona muricata Linn) against bacteria Salmonella Typhi

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