Studi Deskriptif Mengenai Gambaran Parental Attachment dan Peer Attachment Pada Andikpas di LPKA Pekanbaru

Btari Kusumowardhani, Hedi Wahyudi

Abstract


Abstract. The juvenile delinquency behavior that causes adolescents to undergo a period of detention in prison requires further exploration of the factors that cause juvenile delinquency. So that it can develop prevention programs that will be right on target. One of the main factors of concern for the increase in juvenile delinquency, especially in indonesia is parental attachment and peer attachment factor. This study aims to describe the attachment between adolescents with mothers, fathers, and peer groups towards juvenile delinquency especially adolescent known as anak didik pemasyarakatan (Andikpas) in Lembaga Pembinaan Khusus Anak Kelas II Pekanbaru. Attachment is an individual's perception of the affective and cognitive dimensions in relation to the attachment figure (Bowlby, 1982). The research method used is descriptive using a quantitative approach. The population of this study were all of the LPKA Pekanbaru andikpas totaling 46 people. Data were collected using interview techniques with the help of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment Revised (IPPA-R) questionnaire from Armsden and Grenberg (2009) to measure adolescent attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers. The results obtained are that there are similarities between parental attachments and peer attachments, namely, 65% of them have High Security of Parental and Peer Attachments, while 35% of Andikpas have Low Security of Parental and Peer Attachments.

Keywords: Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, Andikpas, LPKA

Abstrak. Perilaku kenakalan remaja yang menyebabkan remaja harus menjalani masa pembinaan di Lapas memerlukan pendalam lebih lanjut mengenai faktor-faktor penyebab terjadinya kenakalan remaja. Sehingga dapat mengembangkan program pencegahan yang akan tepat sasaran. Salah satu faktor utama yang menjadi perhatian bagi meningkatnya kenakalan remaja terutama di Indonesia adalah parental attachment dan peer attachment. Penelitian ini bertujuan menggambarkan attachment antara remaja dengan ibu, ayah, dan teman sebaya terhadap kenakalan remaja khususnya yang menjadi anak didik pemasyarakatann (Andikpas) di Lembaga Pembinaan Khusus Anak Kelas II Pekanbaru. Attachment adalah persepsi individu tentang dimensi afektif dan kognitif dalam hubungannya dengan figur attachment (Bowlby, 1982). Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh andikpas LPKA Pekanbaru yang berjumlah 46 orang. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan teknik wawancara dengan bantuan kuesioner Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment Revised (IPPA-R) dari Armsden dan Grenberg (2009) untuk mengukur kelekatan remaja dengan ibu, ayah, dan teman sebaya. Hasil yang diperopleh adalah terdapat kesamaan antara parental attachment dengan peer attachment yaitu, sebesar 65% andikpas memiliki High Security of Parental dan Peer Attachment sedangkan sebanyak 35% Andikpas, memiliki Low Security of Parental dan Peer Attachment.

Kata Kunci: Kelekatan Orang Tua, Kelekatan Teman Sebaya, Andikpas, LPKA

Keywords


Kelekatan Orang Tua, Kelekatan Teman Sebaya, Andikpas, LPKA

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agnew, R. (1991). A Longitudinal Test of Social Control Theory and Delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 28(2), 126–156.doi:10.1177/0022427891028002002.

Agustine, E.M., Sutini, T., & Mardhiyah, A. (2018). Skrining Perilaku Remaja Di Lembaga Pembinaan Khusus Anak (LPKA) Kelas II Bandung. Jurnal Keperawatan Komprehensif. 4. 32. 10.33755/jkk.v4i1.96

Ainsworth, M. D. (1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development , 41, 49-67

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Bell, S. M., & Stayton, D. J. (1971) Individual differences in strange- situation behavior of one-year-olds. In H. R. Schaffer (Ed.) The origins of human social relations. London and New York: Academic Press. Pp. 17-58

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Akinyi, O.D. (2015) Effects of Authoritarian Parenting Model on Learne Participation in Early Childhood Education Science Class Kabondo Division, Homabay County, Kenya dalam Mwangangi, R. (2019) The Role of Family in Dealing with Juvenile Delinquency. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 52-63. doi: 10.4236/jss.2019.73004

Allen, Joseph & Moore, Cynthia & Kuperminc, Gabriel & Bell, Kathy. (1998). Attachment and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning. Child development. 69. 1406-19. 10.2307/1132274

Armsden, G. C. & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: relationship to well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2018). Profil Anak Indonesia 2018. Jakarta: Kementrian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak (KPPPA)

Bernburg, J. G., & Thorlindsson, T. (1999). Adolescent violence, social control, and the subculture of delinquency: Factors related to violent behavior and nonviolent delinquency. Youth & Society, 30(4), 445–460. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X99030004003

Bowbly, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. I Attachement (2nd Ed.). New York: Basic Books, Inc

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base : Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books, Inc

Bretherton, I. (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(1-2), 3–35. https://doi.org/10.2307/3333824.

Brumariu, L., & Kerns, K.A. (2010). Parent-child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A review of empirical findings and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, 22(1), 177-203. doi: 10.1017/ S0954579409990344 da

Carlson, Elizabeth & Yates, Tuppett & Sroufe, L. Alan. (2008). Development of Dissociation and Development of the Self. Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond

Cassidy, J., & Berlin, L. J. (1994). The Insecure/Ambivalent Pattern of Attachment: Theory and Research. Child Development, 65(4), 971–991. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00796.x

Daigle, L. E., Cullen, F. T., & Wright, J. P. (2007). Gender differences in the predictors of juvenile delinquency: Assessing the generality-specificity debate. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(3), 254-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204007301289

Departemen Kesehatan Rakyat Indonesia. (2014). Profil Kesehatan Indonesia Tahun 2014. Dapat diakses di: http://depkes.go.id

De Wolff, Marianne & van IJzendoorn, Marinus. (1997). Sensitivity and Attachment: A Meta-Analysis on Parental Antecedents of Infant Attachment. Child development. 68. 571-91. 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb04218.x.

Dillon, Frank & Pantin, Hilda & Robbins, Michael & Szapocznik, José. (2008). Exploring the Role of Parental Monitoring of Peers on the Relationship Between Family Functioning and Delinquency in the Lives of African American and Hispanic Adolescents. Crime & Delinquency - CRIME DELINQUEN. 54. 65-94. 10.1177/0011128707305744.

Dykas, Matthew & Ziv, Yair & Cassidy, Jude. (2008). Attachment and peer relations in adolescence. Attachment & human development. 10. 123-41. 10.1080/14616730802113679.

Elgar, F.J., Knight, J., Worrall, G.J. et al. (2003). Attachment Characteristics and Behavioural Problems in Rural and Urban Juvenile Delinquents. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev . 34, 35–48. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025349908855

Fitriani, W & Hastuti, D. (2016). Pengaruh Kelekatan Remaja dengan Ibu, Ayah, dan Teman Sebaya Terhadap Kenakalan Remaja di Lembaga Pembinaan Khsus Anak (LPKA) Kelas II Bandung. Jur. Kel.& Keons, 9(3), 206-217.

Fraley, R. C. (2002). Attachment stability from infancy to adulthood: Meta-analysis and dynamic modeling of developmental mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(2), 123–151. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0602_03

Ford, J. (2005). Substance use, the social bond, and delinquency. Sociological Inquiry. , 75 (1), 109-127.

Gurning, W & Frislidia. (2019). Riau Butuh Rp600 juta Tangani Kasus Kejahatan Anak. riau.antarnews.com 16 Oktober 2019. https://riau.antaranews.com/berita/132694/riau-butuh-rp600-juta-tangani-kasus-kejahatan-anak

Greenberg, Mark & Speltz, Matthew & Deklyen, Michelle. (1993). The role of attachment in the development of early disruptive problems. Development and Psychopathology. 5. 191 - 213. 10.1017/S095457940000434X.

Hamilton, C.E. (2000), Continuity and Discontinuity of Attachment from Infancy through Adolescence. Child Development, 71: 690-694. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00177

Hirschi, T., & Stark, R. (1969). Hellfire and delinquency. Social Problems, 17(2), 202-213.

Hoeve M, D. J. (2009). The relationship between parenting and delinquency: a meta-analysis. Abnorm Child Psychol , 37, 749-775.

Hoeve, Machteld & Stams, Geert & Put, Claudia & Dubas, Judith & Laan, Peter & Gerris, Jan. (2012). A Meta-analysis of Attachment to Parents and Delinquency. Journal of abnormal child psychology. 40. 771-85. 10.1007/s10802-011-9608-1.

Hurlock, B. E. (2004). Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Iro, F.K. (2018). Kekerasan Remaja Indonesia Mencapai 50 Persen. https://fk.ugm.ac.id/kekerasan-remaja-indonesia-mencapai-50-persen/

Kartono, K. (2008). Patologi Sosial, Kenakalan Remaja. Jakarta: PT. Raja

Keskin G, C. O. (2010). J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 17 (5), 433-441.

Laundra KH, K. G. (2002). Social development model of serious delinquency: examining gender differences. Journal of Primary Prevention. 22 (4), 389-407.

Lewis, M., Feiring, C. and Rosenthal, S. (2000), Attachment over Time. Child Development, 71: 707-720. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00180

Love, K. M., & Murdock, T. B. (2004). Attachment to Parents and Psychological Well-Being: An Examination of Young Adult College Students in Intact Families and Stepfamilies. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(4), 600–608. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.18.4.600

Lundahl BW, T. D. (2008). A meta-analysis of father involvement in parent training. Research on Social Work Practice. , 18 (2), 97-106.

MacDonald, K. (1992). Warmth as a Developmental Construct: An Evolutionary Analysis. Child Development, 63(4), 753–773. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1992.tb01659.x

Mack KY, L. M. (2007). Reassessing the family-delinquency association: do family type, family processes, and economic factors make a difference? Journal of Criminal Justice. , 35(1), 51-67.

Merlo, L. J., & Lakey, B. (2007). Trait and social influences in the links among adolescent attachment, depressive symptoms, and coping. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(2), 195–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701277846

Papalia, D.E, Old, S.W, & Feldman. (2007). Human Development. New York: MC Graw Hill.

R. Agnew. (1991). A longitudinal test of social control theory and delinquency. . Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. , 28 (2), 126-156.

Rutter, M. (1995). Relationships between mental disorders in childhood and adulthood. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 91(2), 73–85. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1995.tb09745.x

Ryan RM, Lynch JH. Emotional autonomy versus detachment: Revisiting the vicissitudes of adolescence and young adulthood. Child Dev. 1989;60:340–56.

Santrock, J. W. (2003). Adolescence: Perkembangan Remaja. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Sarwono, S. W. (2004). Psikologi Remaja. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada

Shields, G. a. (1995). Family Correlates of Delinquency: Cohesion and Adaptability. The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. 22, 93-106.

Siegel, L. J., & Welsh, B. C. (2013). Juvenile Delinquency: The Core (4th ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.

Sitinjak, R. G (2019). Pekanbaru Masuk Kategori Berbahaya Narkoba. Goriau.com 17 Desember 2019. https://www.goriau.com/berita/baca/pekanbaru-masuk-kategori-berbahaya-narkoba.html

Sprinthall, N. &. (1995). dolescent psychology: A developmental view. (3rd ed.). Reading, MA : Addison-Wesley.

Utami, A. C. N., & Raharjo, S. T. (2019). Pola Asuh Orang Tua Dan Kenakalan Remaja. Focus: Jurnal Pekerjaan Sosial, 2(1), 150-167.

Vaquera, E., & Kao, G. (2008). Do You Like Me as Much as I Like You? Friendship Reciprocity and Its Effects on School Outcomes among Adolescents. Social science research, 37(1), 55–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.11.002

Vignoli, E., & Mallet, P. (2004). Validation of a brief measure of adolescents' parent attachment based on Armsden and Greenberg's three-dimension model. European Review of Applied Psychology / Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée, 54(4), 251–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2004.04.003

Waters, E., Merrick, S., Treboux, D., Crowell, J. and Albersheim, L. (2000), Attachment Security in Infancy and Early Adulthood: A Twenty‐Year Longitudinal Study. Child Development, 71: 684-689. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00176

West ML, Spreng SW, Rose SM, Adam KS. Relationship between attachment-felt security and history of suicidal behaviours in clinical adolescents. Can J Psychiatry. 1999;44(6):578-582. doi:10.1177/070674379904400606

Zanussi, U., Cawthorpe, D., & Wilkes, T. (2010). P01-261 - Felt Security and Suicidality in a Clinical Sample of Adolescents. European Psychiatry, 25(S1), 1-1. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(10)70467-3

Zegers, M. A. (2008). Attachment and problem behavior of adolescents during residential treatment. Attachment & Human Development,. Attach Hum Dev. , 10 (1), 91-103.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/.v6i2.23394

Flag Counter