Scoping Review: Efektivitas Pemberian Sinbiotik pada Pasien Anak Gastroenteritis Akut

Khoiriyah Khoiriyah, Hidayat Widjadjanegara, Franseda Sjafei


Abstract. Acute gastroenteritis is inflammation of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, protozoa, worms that can be spread by faecal-oral transmission. The virus that often and most commonly causes acute gastroenteritis is rotavirus in children, accounting for 30-70% of cases. Synbiotics, which are a combination of prebiotics and probiotics that can reduce toxin levels so that they can have a positive effect in the intestinal microflora. It also has a positive effect on the development of beneficial gut bacteria. The aim of this study was to ensure the effectiveness of synbiotics in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. This research was conducted from August to December 2020. This research is a Scoping Review, by searching for articles from the PubMed, Springer Link, and Science Direct databases. The results of the feasibility test based on PICOS are three articles. After a critical review was carried out, the remaining articles were three articles. The review and analysis of three articles stated that giving synbiotics to patients with acute gastroenteritis can reduce the duration of diarrhea. One article stated that both zinc administration and synbiotics were effective in reducing the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo.The conclusion of this study is that the administration of synbiotics or zinc is effective in reducing the duration of diarrhea episodes in acute gastroenteritis and gives better results than placebo.

Key words:  Acute Gastroenteritis, Diarrhea, Synbiotics.

Abstrak. Gastroenteritis akut adalah peradangan membran mukosa saluran cerna yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus, bakteri, protozoa, cacing yang dapat menyebar melalui transmisi fekal – oral. Virus yang sering dan paling umum menyebabkan gastroenteritis akut adalah rotavirus pada anak-anak yaitu sebanyak 30 – 70% kasus. Sinbiotik yang merupakan kombinasi dari prebiotik dan probiotik mampu menurunkan tingkatan toksin sehingga dapat memberikan efek positif dalam microflora intestinal. Selain itu juga memberikan efek positif pada perkembangan bakteri intestinal yang menguntungkan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji efektivitas sinbiotik pada pasien anak gastroenteritis akut. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Agustus sampai dengan Desember 2020. Penelitian ini merupakan Scoping Review,  dengan mencari artikel dari database PubMed, Springer Link, dan Science Direct. Hasil uji kelayakan berdasarkan PICOS sebanyak tiga artikel. Setelah dilakukan telaah kritis, artikel yang tersisa sebanyak tiga artikel.Hasil telaah dan analisis dari tiga artikel menyatakan bahwa pemberian sinbiotik pada pasien gastroenteritis akut dapat menurunkan durasi diare. Salah satu artikel menyatakan bahwa baik pemberian zinc maupun sinbiotik efektif menurunkan durasi diare dibandingkan dengan plasebo. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah pemberian sinbiotik atau zinc efektif dalam mengurangi durasi episode diare pasien gastroenteritis akut pada anak dan memberikan hasil yang lebih baik daripada plasebo.

Kata kunci:  Diare, Gastroenteritis Akut, Sinbiotik


Diare, Gastroenteritis Akut, Sinbiotik


K.Podolsky D. Yamada’s textbook of gastroenterology. Wiley Blackwell. 2016;678.

Troeger C, Forouzanfar M, Rao PC, Khalil I, Brown A, Reiner RC, et al. Estimates of global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17(9):909–48.

Elliott EJ. Acute gastroenteritis in children. Br Med J. 2007;334(7583):35–40.

Page NA, Nadan S MJ. Viral gastroenteritis; gastrointestinal diseases and their associated infections. Elsevier Inc. 2019;135–49.

Kemenkes RI. Situasi diare di Indonesia. J Bul Jendela Data Inf Kesehat. 2011;2:1–44.

Gundogdu Z. Effect of a synbiotic on infantile acute gastroenteritis. Benef Microbes. 2013;4(3):231–6.

Szajewska H, Setty M, Mrukowicz J, Guandalini S. Probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;42(5):454–75.

Vandenplas Y, De Hert SG. Randomised clinical trial: The synbiotic food supplement probiotical vs. placebo for acute gastroenteritis in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34(8):862–7.

Jog P. The world of synbiotics: a review of literature and clinical evidence in diarrhoea from the lens of a paediatrician. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2018;6(1):233.

Markowiak P, Ślizewska K. Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. Nutrients. 2017;9(9).

Hamasalim HJ. Synbiotic as Feed Additives Relating to Animal Health and Performance. Adv Microbiol. 2016;06(04):288–302.

Manigandan T, Mangaiyarkarasi S. P, Hemalatha R, Hemalatha V. T MNP. Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2012;5(2).

Thomas DW, Greer FR, Bhatia JJS, Abrams SA, Daniels SR, Schneider MB, et al. Clinical report - Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2010;126(6):1217–31.

Passariello A, Terrin G, Cecere G, Micillo M, De Marco G, Di Costanzo M, et al. Randomised clinical trial: Efficacy of a new synbiotic formulation containing Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 plus arabinogalactan and xilooligosaccharides in children with acute diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(7):782–8.

Yazar AS, Guven Ş, Dinleyici EÇ. Effects of zinc or synbiotic on the duration of diarrhea in children with acute infectious diarrhea. Turkish J Gastroenterol. 2016;27(6):537–40.

Canani RB, Cirillo P, Terrin G, Cesarano L, Spagnuolo MI, De Vincenzo A, et al. Probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: Randomised clinical trial of five different preparations. Br Med J. 2007;335(7615):340–2.

Saavedra JM, Bauman NA, Perman JA, Yolken RH, Saavedra JM, Bauman NA, et al. Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet. 1994;344(8929):1046–9.

Juntunen M, Hospital S, Danisco A. Juntunen M , Kirjavainen PV , Ouwehand AC , Salminen SJ , Isolauri E .. Adherence of probiotic bacteria to human ... Adherence of Probiotic Bacteria to Human Intestinal Mucus in Healthy Infants and during Rotavirus Infection. Am Soc Microbiol. 2000;8(March):293–6.


Flag Counter