Scoping Review: Efektivitas Pemberian Sinbiotik pada Pasien Anak Gastroenteritis Akut

Khoiriyah Khoiriyah, Hidayat Widjadjanegara, Franseda Sjafei

Abstract


Abstract. Acute gastroenteritis is inflammation of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, protozoa, worms that can be spread by faecal-oral transmission. The virus that often and most commonly causes acute gastroenteritis is rotavirus in children, accounting for 30-70% of cases. Synbiotics, which are a combination of prebiotics and probiotics that can reduce toxin levels so that they can have a positive effect in the intestinal microflora. It also has a positive effect on the development of beneficial gut bacteria. The aim of this study was to ensure the effectiveness of synbiotics in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. This research was conducted from August to December 2020. This research is a Scoping Review, by searching for articles from the PubMed, Springer Link, and Science Direct databases. The results of the feasibility test based on PICOS are three articles. After a critical review was carried out, the remaining articles were three articles. The review and analysis of three articles stated that giving synbiotics to patients with acute gastroenteritis can reduce the duration of diarrhea. One article stated that both zinc administration and synbiotics were effective in reducing the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo.The conclusion of this study is that the administration of synbiotics or zinc is effective in reducing the duration of diarrhea episodes in acute gastroenteritis and gives better results than placebo.

Key words:  Acute Gastroenteritis, Diarrhea, Synbiotics.

Abstrak. Gastroenteritis akut adalah peradangan membran mukosa saluran cerna yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus, bakteri, protozoa, cacing yang dapat menyebar melalui transmisi fekal – oral. Virus yang sering dan paling umum menyebabkan gastroenteritis akut adalah rotavirus pada anak-anak yaitu sebanyak 30 – 70% kasus. Sinbiotik yang merupakan kombinasi dari prebiotik dan probiotik mampu menurunkan tingkatan toksin sehingga dapat memberikan efek positif dalam microflora intestinal. Selain itu juga memberikan efek positif pada perkembangan bakteri intestinal yang menguntungkan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji efektivitas sinbiotik pada pasien anak gastroenteritis akut. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Agustus sampai dengan Desember 2020. Penelitian ini merupakan Scoping Review,  dengan mencari artikel dari database PubMed, Springer Link, dan Science Direct. Hasil uji kelayakan berdasarkan PICOS sebanyak tiga artikel. Setelah dilakukan telaah kritis, artikel yang tersisa sebanyak tiga artikel.Hasil telaah dan analisis dari tiga artikel menyatakan bahwa pemberian sinbiotik pada pasien gastroenteritis akut dapat menurunkan durasi diare. Salah satu artikel menyatakan bahwa baik pemberian zinc maupun sinbiotik efektif menurunkan durasi diare dibandingkan dengan plasebo. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah pemberian sinbiotik atau zinc efektif dalam mengurangi durasi episode diare pasien gastroenteritis akut pada anak dan memberikan hasil yang lebih baik daripada plasebo.

Kata kunci:  Diare, Gastroenteritis Akut, Sinbiotik


Keywords


Diare, Gastroenteritis Akut, Sinbiotik

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/kedokteran.v7i1.26898

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