Scoping Review: Pengaruh Kadar Gula Darah Tidak Terkontrol terhadap Komplikasi Makrovaskular pada Pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2

Nabila Maharani Suryanegara, Nuzirwan Acang, Yani Dewi Suryani

Abstract


Abstract. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 is a metabolic disorder in which the body is able to produce insulin but not in normal levels or cannot respond to the effects of insulin (insulin resistance), causing hyperglycemia. If blood sugar levels are not properly controlled, it can lead to chronic complications in the form of microvascular diseases such as eye diseases, neuropathy and nephropathy and macrovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arteries and cerebrovascular. In 2013, research showed the high prevalence of DM sufferers in Indonesia, especially in the province of Central Sulawesi. Objective: To see the emergence of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patietns with uncontrolled blood sugar levels. Research method: Scoping review by identifying, analyzing and evaluating a scientific paper published within the last 10 years, conducted in September 2020 - December 2020. Systematic searches were carried out through database sites, i.e Pubmed, Springer Link and Proquest. In accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria, and screening was carried out using the PRISMA eligibility criteria and presented in the form of a research table containing a reviewed descriptions of research articles (9 articles). Conclusion: Nine articles stated that there was an effect of uncontrolled blood sugar levels on the emergence of macrovascular complications in the form of coronary artery disease, peripheral arteries and cerebrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels were associated with atherosclerotic plaque formation and impaired endothelial function. Myocardiac infarction, gangrene, ischemic stroke are common presentations in patients with uncontrolled blood sugar levels.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus type 2, uncontrolled blood sugar levels, macrovascular complications

Abstrak. Diabetes melitus (DM) tipe 2 adalah gangguan metabolik dimana tubuh mampu menghasilkan insulin namun tidak dalam kadar normal atau tidak dapat berespon terhadap efek insulin (resistensi insulin) sehingga menyebabkan hiperglikemi. Jika kadar gula darah tidak dikontrol dengan baik, maka akan dapat menyebabkan komplikasi kronis berupa mikrovaskular seperti penyakit mata, neuropati dan nefropati serta makrovaskular seperti penyakit arteri koroner, arteri perifer dan serebrovaskular. Pada tahun 2013, riset menunjukan tingginya prevalensi penderita DM di Indonesia, terutama di provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Tujuan: Untuk melihat timbulnya komplikasi makrovaskular pada penderita diabetes melitus tipe 2 dengan kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol. Metode penelitian: Scoping review dengan mengidentifikasi, menganalisis dan mengevaluasi suatu karya tulis ilmiah yang diterbitkan dalam rentang waktu 10 tahun terakhir yang dilakukan pada September 2020 – Desember 2020. Pencarian sistematis dilakukan melalui situs database yaitu Pubmed, Springer Link dan Proquest. Sesuai dengan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi serta dilakukan skrining menggunakan kriteria kelayakan pada PRISMA dan disajikan dalam bentuk tabel hasil penelitian berisi uraian artikel penelitian yang telah di-review (9 artikel). Simpulan: Sembilan artikel menyatakan terdapat pengaruh kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol terhadap kemunculan komplikasi makrovaskular berupa penyakit arteri koroner, arteri perifer dan serebrovaskular pada pasien diabetes melitus tipe 2. Kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol berkaitan dengan pembentukan plak aterosklerosis serta gangguan fungsi endotel, sehingga pasien dengan miokardiak infark, gangrene, iskemik stroke merupakan presentasi yang umum pada pasien dengan kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol.

Kata kunci: Diabetes melitus tipe 2, kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol, komplikasi makrovaskular

Keywords


Diabetes melitus tipe 2, kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol, komplikasi makrovaskular

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/kedokteran.v7i1.26728

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