Scoping Review: Ekspresi Gen ApoE4 pada Penderita Alzheimer

Moch Boy Wildan Sulaeman, Arief Budi Yulianti, Tryando Bhatara

Abstract


Abstract. Introduction: Alzheimer's is a symptom associated with decreased memory and cognitive impairment that can interfere with a person's ability to perform daily activities. One of the risk factors for Alzheimer's is the expression of the apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) which accounts for 95% of Alzheimer's cases. This study aims to analyze the expression of the ApoE4 gene patient with Alzheimer's. Methods: This study useds the scoping review method through searching for eligible journals based on the criteria P, I, C, O, S; P (population) in this study is a women and men aged at least 50 years, I (intervention) was ApoE4, O (outcome) in this study was ApoE4 expression in Alzheimer's patients, and S (study) was randomized control trial. This study did not include any comparation (C). Results:  This study found that the participants who had the ApoE4 gene expression showed changes in brain functions such as decreased cognitive, verbal, and memory functions. It can be concluded that. there is an expression of the ApoE4 gene in Alzheimer's patients. Discussion: The discussion of this study is that the study participants who have the ApoE4 gene expression in their bodies have problems in the results of these studies that lead to Alzheimer's caused by the impact of ApoE4 which can cause disorders of the cytoskeletal and mitochondrial structures in the brain, damaging the blood brain barrier, inhibits the growth of neurites and neuronal plasticity, stimulates tau phospholiration, and plays a role in inhibiting the metabolism of amyloid beta in the brain.

Key words: Alzheimer's, apolipoprotein E, ApoE4

Abstrak. Pendahuluan: Alzheimer merupakan suatu gejala yang berhubungan dengan penurunan daya ingat dan gangguan kognitif sehingga dapat mengganggu kemampuan seseorang untuk melakukan aktivitas sehari-hari. Salah satu faktor risiko Alzheimer adalah ekspresi gen apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) yang dapat ditemukan pada 95% kasus Alzheimer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ekspresi gen ApoE4 pada penderita Alzheimer. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode scoping review melalui pencarian jurnal eligible berdasarkan kriteria P, I, C, O, S; P (populasi) pada penelitian ini adalah wanita dan pria berusia minimal 50 tahun, I (intervensi) yaitu ApoE4, O (outcome) pada penlitian ini adalah ekspresi ApoE4 pada penderita Alzheimer, dan S (study) pada penlitian ini yaitu randomized control trial. Penelitian ini tidak menggunakan pembanding (C, comparison). Hasil: Pada studi ini diketahui bahwa partisipan yang memiliki ekspresi gen ApoE4 mengalami penurunan fungsi otak, seperti penurunan fungsi kognitif, verbal, maupun memori. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat ekspresi gen ApoE4 pada Alzheimer. Diskusi:  Pada peserta penelitian yang memiliki ekspresi gen ApoE4 pada tubuhnya memiliki permasalahan pada hasil penelitian-penelitian tersebut yang mengarah kepada Alzheimer yang disebabkan oleh dampak dari ApoE4 tersebut yang dapat menyebabkan gangguan pada struktur sitoskeletal dan mitokondria pada otak, merusak sawar darah otak, menghambat pertumbuhan neurit dan neuronal plasticity, merangsang fosfolirasi tau, dan berperan dalam menghambat metabolisme amyloid beta pada otak.

Kata kunci: alzheimer, apolipoprotein E, ApoE4


Keywords


alzheimer, apolipoprotein E, ApoE4

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/kedokteran.v7i1.26610

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