Efek Musik sebagai Terapi Tambahan terhadap Pengendalian Tekanan Darah pada Penderita Hipertensi

Prita Tyara Aulia, Diana Wijayanti, Nuzirwan Acang

Abstract


Abstract. Hypertension was an increase in systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and diastolic ≥90 mmHg, measured twice, five minutes apart in a calm state. The prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia in 2013 was recorded at 25.8% and became 34.1% in 2018. Treatment of hypertension in addition to using drugs, can be given non-pharmacological therapy, which is music therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of music as an additional therapy on controlling blood pressure in hypertensive patients. This research is a Scoping Review, by searching articles from the database Science Direct, Neliti, and DOAJ obtained 2,784 articles. The screening results that matched the inclusion criteria were 474 articles. The results of the feasibility test were based on PICOS and after a critical review there were six articles that met the requirements. The research was conducted in the period September-December 2020. The results of the study and analysis of six articles stated that giving music for 15-25 minutes affected blood pressure and there were differences in blood pressure before and after being given music to people with hypertension. In addition, five articles stated that there were differences in blood pressure in hypertensive patients who were not given music therapy. Three articles stated that there were differences in the effect of lowering blood pressure between the music intervention group and the group that was not given music intervention. The music can stimulate body to release nitric oxide molecules which cause blood vessels to dilate so that can lower blood pressure. The conclusion of this study is that music therapy is effective in controlling blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Adjunctive therapy, Hypertension, Music therapy

Abstrak. Hipertensi adalah peningkatan tekanan darah sistolik ≥140 mmHg dan diastolik ≥90 mmHg, diukur dua kali, selang waktu lima menit dalam keadaan tenang. Prevalensi hipertensi di Indonesia tahun 2013 tercatat 25,8% dan menjadi 34,1% pada 2018. Pengobatan hipertensi selain menggunakan obat, dapat diberi terapi non-farmakologis, salah satunya adalah terapi musik. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis efek musik sebagai terapi tambahan terhadap pengendalian tekanan darah pada penderita hipertensi. Penelitian ini merupakan Scoping Review, dengan mencari artikel dari database Science Direct, Neliti, dan DOAJ diperoleh 2.784 artikel. Hasil skrining yang sesuai kriteria inklusi sebanyak 474 artikel. Hasil uji kelayakan berdasar PICOS dan setelah dilakukan telaah kritis terdapat enam artikel yang memenuhi syarat. Penelitian dilakukan pada periode September–Desember 2020. Hasil telaah dan analisis dari enam artikel menyatakan pemberian musik selama 15–25 menit memengaruhi tekanan darah dan terdapat perbedaan tekanan darah sebelum dan setelah diberikan musik pada penderita hipertensi. Lima artikel menyatakan terdapat perbedaan tekanan darah pada penderita hipertensi yang tidak diberikan terapi musik. Tiga artikel menyatakan terdapat perbedaan efek penurunan tekanan darah antara kelompok intervensi musik dan kelompok yang tidak diberikan intervensi musik. Alunan musik dapat menstimulasi tubuh mengeluarkan molekul nitric oxide yang menyebabkan pelebaran pembuluh darah sehingga dapat menurunkan tekanan darah. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian terapi musik efektif terhadap pengendalian tekanan darah pada penderita hipertensi.

Kata kunci: Hipertensi, Terapi musik, Terapi tambahan


Keywords


Hipertensi, Terapi musik, Terapi tambahan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/kedokteran.v7i1.26571

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