Scoping Review: Pengaruh Puasa Ramadhan terhadap Tekanan Darah pada Orang Dewasa

Ghaisanny Anita Sukma, Mia Kusmiati, Dadang Rukanta

Abstract


Abstract. Ramadan fasting has many benefits for the body, including regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and other cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure and to understand how the results of the review have been conducted. This study is a scoping review using articles from three databases. There were 2,231 articles that match the inclusion criteria. Feasibility test that based on PICOS had 14 articles. After a critical review, there were 8 articles remaining. This research was conducted in September-December 2020. The results of the study and analysis of eight articles, there were three articles stating that in healthy people, the effect of Ramadhan fasting on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was not significant. There was one article stating that it was significant. In hypertensive people, there were two articles stating that the effect of Ramadan fasting on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significant. One article stating that there was a significant decrease but only in systolic blood pressure, and there was one article stating that in hypertensive people, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreases but was not significant. In conclusion, Ramadan fasting affects the reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults who have normal blood pressure or hypertension. Therefore, hypertensive people who are undergoing Ramadan fasting must still take the antihypertensive drugs according to doctor's recommendations.

Keywords: Blood pressure, fasting, hypertension, Ramadan fasting

Abstrak. Puasa Ramadhan memiliki banyak manfaat untuk tubuh, seperti mengatur denyut jantung, tekanan darah, dan faktor risiko kardiovaskular. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui latar belakang pengaruh puasa Ramadhan terhadap tekanan darah dan memahami bagaimana hasil review yang telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini merupakan scoping review dengan menggunakan artikel dari database Pubmed, Springer Link, dan Google Scholar. Artikel yang sesuai dengan kriteria inklusi sebanyak 2.231 artikel. Hasil uji kelayakan berdasar atas PICOS sebanyak 14 artikel. Setelah dilakukan telaah kritis, artikel yang tersisa sebanyak 8 artikel. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada periode September–Desember 2020. Hasil telaah dan analisis terhadap delapan artikel, terdapat tiga artikel menyatakan bahwa pada orang dewasa sehat puasa Ramadhan berpengaruh tidak signifikan terhadap tekanan darah sistole dan diastole. Terdapat satu artikel menyatakan signifikan. Pada orang hipertensi, dua artikel menyatakan bahwa puasa Ramadhan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap tekanan darah sistole dan diastole. Satu artikel menyatakan terdapat penurunan signifikan tekanan darah sistole. Satu artikel menyatakan tekanan darah sistole dan diastole menurun, namun tidak signifikan. Simpulan, puasa Ramadhan memengaruhi penurunan  tekanan darah sistole dan diastole pada orang dewasa yang mempunyai tekanan darah normal maupun hipertensi. Maka dari itu, orang hipertensi yang menjalani puasa Ramadhan harus tetap mengkonsumsi obat antihipertensi sesuai dengan anjuran dokter.

Kata kunci: Hipertensi, puasa, puasa Ramadhan, tekanan darah


Keywords


Hipertensi, puasa, puasa Ramadhan, tekanan darah

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/kedokteran.v7i1.26554

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