Scoping Review Kejadian Karies Gigi Berhubungan dengan Status Nutrisi pada Anak Usia Pra Sekolah

Jaja Jamaludin, Siti Annisa Devi Trusda, Achmad Mauludin

Abstract


Abstract.  Malnutrition is caused by internal and external factors, internal factors consisting of the amount of quality of food intake and disease, one of which is dental caries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are more than 530 million children in the world who experience dental caries and malnutrition is a complex problem, is also the leading cause of death in children in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the incidence of dental caries and nutritional status in pre-school children. The method used in this research is a scoping review, with research articles from international journals that meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. This article was then selected using the PRISMA diagram by considering population (pre-school age children), intervention (dental caries), comparison (pre-school age children who did not experience dental caries.), Outcome (nutritional status), study (RCT, clinical trial, cross-sectional, cluster-randomized clinical trial.). The review results show 9 articles that are obtained from the search results. This review resulted in 3 main patterns, including 2 articles stating that the incidence of dental caries in pre-school age children was higher in the group with high body mass index per age (obesity), 4 articles stated that the incidence of dental caries in pre-school children was higher. in the group with low body mass index per age (wasting), 3 articles stated that there was no relationship between the incidence of dental caries in pre-school children with body mass index per age. The difference in the results of the articles in this review is due to several factors, namely the low knowledge of parents about good nutritional intake and oral dental health, differences in socioeconomic status, the lack of government efforts regarding counseling on dental and oral health. The conclusion of this review is that there is a significant relationship between the incidence of dental caries and nutritional status in pre-school children, namely the incidence of teeth is higher in children with a low body mass index per age.

Keywords: dental caries, nutritional status, preschool children

Abstrak. Keadaan malnutrisi di sebabkan oleh faktor internal dan faktor eksternal, faktor internal terdiri dari jumlah kualitas asupan makanan dan penyakit, salahsatunya karies gigi. Menurut World Health Organization (WHO) terdapat lebih dari 530 juta anak di dunia mengalami karies gigi dan malnutrisi merupakan masalah yang kompleks dan penyebab utama kematian pada anak di dunia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan kejadian karies gigi dengan status nutrisi pada anak usia pra sekolah. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah scoping review, dengan bahan penelitian artikel dari jurnal internasional yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Artikel ini kemudian diseleksi menggunakan diagram PRISMA dengan mempertimbangkan population (anak usia pra sekolah), intervention (karies gigi), comparison (anak usia pra sekolah yang tidak mengalami karies gigi.), outcome (status nutrisi), study (RCT,clinical trial,cross sectional, cluster randomized clinicaltria.). Hasil review menunjukan 9 artikel yang di dapatkan dari hasil pencarian. Review ini menghasilkan 3 pola utama yaitu diantaranya  2 artikel menyatakan bahwa kejadian karies gigi pada anak usia pra sekolah lebih tinggi pada kelompok dengan indeks masa tubuh per umur yang tinggi (obesitas), 4 artikel menyatakan bahwa kejadian karies gigi pada anak usia pra sekolah lebih tinggi pada kelompok dengan indeks masa tubuh per umur yang rendah (kurus), 3 artikel menyatakan bahwa tidak ada hubungan  kejadian karies gigi pada anak usia pra sekolah dengan indeks masa tubuh per umur. Perbedaan hasil dari artikel yang di review ini di akibatkan beberapa faktor yaitu rendahnya pengetahuan dari orang tua terhadap asupan nutrisi yang baik dari kesehatan gigi mulut, perbedaan status sosioekonomi dan kurangnya upaya pemerintah mengenai penyuluhan tentang kesehatan  gigi dan mulut. Kesimpulan review ini terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara kejadian karies gigi dengan status nutrisi pada anak usia pra sekolah yaitu kejadian karies gigi lebih tinggi pada anak dengan indeks masa tubuh per umur rendah.

Kata kunci: anak usia prasekolah, karies gigi, status nutrisi.


Keywords


anak usia prasekolah, karies gigi, status nutrisi.

References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/kedokteran.v7i1.26479

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