Scoping Review: Pengaruh Paparan Zat Kimia terhadap Kejadian Dermatitis Kontak Iritan pada Pekerja Industri

Frias Astuti Febrianti, Riri Risanti, Raden Kince Sakinah

Abstract


Abstact. Irritant contact dermatitis (DKI) is a non-immunological inflammation caused by contact with chemical, physical, or biological agents. Chemical substances that can cause damage to the skin in the form of chemicals that are acidic, strong alkaline such as sodium hydroxide which is found in detergents, soaps. In addition, corrosive chemicals (corrosive) can cause tissue damage when in contact with body tissues, especially skin contact, causing irritant contact dermatitis. This study is a scoping review, using the PubMed, ScienceDirect and SpringerLink databases. There were 85 articles that matched the inclusion criteria and 209 articles that were included in the exclusion criteria. The results of the feasibility test are based on five articles of PICOS. This research was conducted from March to December 2020. The results of the study and analysis of five articles, there were two articles which stated that repeated exposure to chemical substances in hand washing soap on industrial workers as health workers can cause irritant contact dermatitis. In conclusion, the effects of exposure to acidic, strong and weak alkaline and corrosive chemical substances on industrial workers, especially health workers and factory workers, can cause symptoms of acute DKI at 8-12 hours of exposure in the form of vesicles, hyperkeratosis, and chronic DKI on repeated exposure in the form of dry skin, hyperkeratosis, lichenification and fissures.

Keywords: Chemical Substances, Irritant Contact Dermatitis, Industrial Workers

Abstrak. Dermatitis kontak iritan (DKI) adalah peradangan non-imunologi yang disebabkan oleh kontak dengan bahan kimia, fisik, atau agen biologi. Zat kimia yang dapat menimbulkan kerusakan pada kulit berupa zat kimia yang bersifat asam, basa kuat seperti natrium hidroksida yang didapatka dalam deterjen, sabun. Selain itu juga, zat kimia korosif (corrosive) dapat menimbulkan kerusakan jaringan apabila kontak dengan jaringan tubuh terutama kontak pada kulit sehingga menyebabkan dermatitis kontak iritan. Penelitian ini merupakan scoping review, dengan menggunakan database PubMed, ScienceDirect dan SpringerLink. Artikel yang sesuai dengan kriteria inklusi sebanyak 85 artikel dan yang termasuk dalam kriteria eksklusi sebanyak 209 artikel. Hasil uji kelayakan berdasar atas PICOS sebanya lima artikel. Penelitian ini dilakukan dari priode Maret – Desember 2020. Hasil telaah dan analisis dari lima artikel, terdapat dua artikel yang menyatakan bahwa paparan zat kimia pada sabun pencuci tangan yang dilakukan secara berulang kali pada pekerja industri sebagai petugas kesehatan dapat menyebabkan dermatitis kontak iritan. Simpulan, pengaruh paparan zat kimia bersifat asam, basa kuat dan lemah serta korosif pada pekerja industri terutama tenaga kesehatan dan pekerja pabrik dapat menimbulkan gejala DKI akut pada paparan 8-12 jam berupa vesikel, hiperkeratosis, dan DKI kronik pada paparan yang berulang berupa kulit kering, hiperkeratosis, likenifikasi dan fisura.

Kata Kunci: Dermatitis Kontak Iritan, Pekerja Industri, Zat Kimia


Keywords


Dermatitis Kontak Iritan, Pekerja Industri, Zat Kimia

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/kedokteran.v7i1.25929

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