Gambaran Karakteristik Umum, Lingkungan dan Konversi BTA pada Pasien Tuberkulosis Paru di Lab Patologi Klinik Rumah Sakit Al-Islam Bandung 2018

Marsha Caesariana, Yani Triyani, Wida Purbaningsih

Abstract


Abstract. Tuberculosis is one of the 10 infectious diseases in the world, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Indonesia is currently ranked 3rd country with the highest rates of new cases in the world after India and China, followed by the Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and South Africa. This study aims to describe the general characteristics and BTA conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis patients at Al-Islam Hospital Bandung 2018. This research is a descriptive observational study. There are 21 medical records that meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria at the Al-Islam Hospital in Bandung. The data used are data on patient characteristics such as age, sex, level of education, comorbid, and densely populated environment as well as positive or negative conversion events from medical records. The results showed that positive conversion patients by age group were 37% of the late adolescent age group, by sex there were 75% women, based on educational background there were 50% high school and college, based on comorbidities there were 100% no comorbid, and based on the environment residences found 10% live in densely populated neighborhoods. Negative conversion patients based on age group found 30% of late teens and early elderly, based on sex found 69% of women, based on educational background found 66,% of SMA, based on type of comorbid obtained 84,% had no comorbid, and based on neighborhood found 62,% in densely populated environments. The conclusion of this study is that the most positive conversion events occur in patients in the late adolescent age group (17−25 years) 37,%, female sex 75,%, high school and college education level 50,%, do not have a 100% comorbid, and live in a densely populated neighborhood, 76%.

Keywords: Characteristics, Negative conversion, Positive conversion, Tuberculosis

Abstrak. Tuberkulosis adalah salah satu penyakit menular dari 10 penyebab kematian tertinggi di dunia, disebabkan oleh Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Saat ini Indonesia menduduki peringkat ke-3 negara yang memiliki tingkat kasus baru tertinggi di dunisa setelah India dan Cina, diikuti oleh Filipina, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, dan Afrika Selatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan karakteristik umum dan konversi BTA pada pasien tuberkulosis paru di Rumah Sakit Al-Islam Bandung 2018. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasi deskriptif. Terdapat 21 data rekam medis yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi di Rumah Sakit Al-Islam Bandung. Data yang digunakan adalah data karakteristik pasien yaitu usia, jenis kelamin, tingkat pendidikan, komorbid, dan lingkungan padat penduduk serta kejadian konversi positif maupun negatif dari rikam medis. Hasil  penelitian didapatkan bahwa pasien konversi positif berdasarkan kelompok usia sebanyak 37% kelompok usia remaja akhir, berdasarkan jenis kelamin terdapat 75% perempuan, berdasarkan latar belakang pendidikan terdapat 50% SMA dan perguruan tinggi, berdasarkan komorbid terdapat 100% tidak ada komorbid, dan berdasarkan lingkungan tempat tinggal didapatkan 10% tinggal di lingkungan padat penduduk. Pasien konversi negatif berdasarkan kolompok usia didapatkan 30% usia remaja akhir dan lansia awal, berdasarkan jenis kelamin didapatkan 69% perempuan, berdasarkan latar belakang pendidikan didapatkan 66,% SMA, berdasarkan jenis komorbid didapatkan 84,% tidak memiliki komorbid, dan berdasarkan lingkungan tempat tinggal didapatkan 62,% di lingkungan padat penduduk. Simpulan penelitian ini adalah kejadian konversi positif paling banyak terjadi pada pasien kelompok usia remaja akhir (17−25 tahun) 37,%, jenis kelamin perempuan 75,%, tingkat penidikan SMA dan perguruan tinggi 50,%, tidak memiliki komorbid 100%, dan tinggal di lingkungan padat penduduk 76,%.

Kata kunci: Karakteristik, Konversi negatif, Konversi positif, Tuberkulosis


Keywords


Karakteristik, Konversi negatif, Konversi positif, Tuberkulosis

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis. 2018;(September 2018).

Infodatin Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Tuberkulosis. Tuberkulosis. 2018;(Maret 2018).

Prameswari A. The Evaluation of Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course ( DOTS ) Implementation for TB in Hospital X. 2018;7(August):93–101.

Kurniawan N, D SRH, Indriati G. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan pengobatan tuberkulosis paru. JOM. 2015;2(1).

Zulaikhah ST, Turijan. Pemantauan efektivitas obat anti tuberkulosis berdasarakan pemeriksaan sputum pada penderita tuberkulosis paru. J Kesehat. 2010;3(1).

Bouti K, Aharmim M, Marc K, Soualhi M, Zahraoui R, Benamor J, et al. Factors Influencing Sputum Conversion among Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Morocco. 2013;2013.

Rekha VVB, Balasubramanian R, Swaminathan S, Ramachandran R, Rahman F, Sundaram V, et al. Sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase of Category-1 regimen in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus or HIV infection : An analysis of risk factors. Indian J Med. 2007;(November):452–8.

Pradnyadewi NLNTA, Putra IWGAE. Gambaran pengetahuan, sikap, perilaku dan konversi penderita tuberkulosis paru bakteri tahan asam (bta) positif di kota denpasar tahun 2012. 2013;2(2):1–11.

Yoko JLM, Tumbo JM, Mills AB, Kabongo CD. Characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Moses Kotane region North West Province, South Africa. South African Fam Pract. 2017;59(2):78–81.

Jayakody W, Harries AD, Malhotra S, de Alwis S, Samaraweera S, Pallewatta N. Characteristics and Outcomes of Tuberculosis Patients Who Fail to Smear Convert at Two Months in Sri Lanka. Public Heal Action. 2013;3(1):26–30.

Ihsan M, Hiswani, Jemadi. Karakteristik Penderita Tuberkulosis Paru Bta Positif Dan Hasil Pengobatannya Di Poli Paru Rsud Deli Serdang Tahun 2011-2012. J Gizi Kesehat Reproduksi dan Epidemiol. 2012;1(2):1–10.

Heunis JC, Kigozi NG, van der Merwe S, Chikobvu P, Beyers N. Sex-Related Trends in Non-Conversion of New Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in The Free State, South Africa. Public Heal Action. 2014;4(1):66–71.

Wulan D, Rengganis S, Wahono EP, Lampung B, Lampung B. Predominant Determinants of Delayed Tuberculosis Sputum Conversion in Indonesia. Indian J Community Med. 2019;44(1):53–7.

Su WJ, Feng JY, Chiu YC, Huang SF, Lee YC. Role of 2-month Sputum Smears in Predicting Culture Conversion in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 2011;37(2):376–83.

Mirzayev F, Van Gemert W, Gilpin C, Weyer K. Xpert MTB / RIF implementation. 2014. 12–17 hal.




Flag Counter